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# Lower Key Stage 2

__Overview of Lower Key Stage 2 – Years 3 and 4__

The principal focus of Mathematics teaching in Lower Key Stage 2 is to ensure that pupils become increasingly fluent with whole numbers and the four operations, including number facts and the concept of place value. This will ensure that our pupils develop efficient written and mental methods and perform calculations accurately.

At this stage, pupils will develop their ability to solve a range of problems, including those involving fractions and decimal place value. Teaching will ensure that pupils draw with increasing accuracy and develop mathematical reasoning, so they can analyse shapes and their properties, and confidently describe the relationships between them. Pupils will also be taught how to use measuring instruments with accuracy and make connections between measure and number.

By the end of Lower Key Stage 2, pupils should have memorised their multiplication tables up to an including the 12 times table and show precision and fluency in their work.

Pupils should read and spell mathematical vocabulary correctly and confidently, using their growing word reading knowledge and their knowledge of spelling.

**Year 3 Programme of Study: Statutory Requirements**

__Number and Place Value__

Pupils will be taught to:

- count from 0 in multiples of 4, 8, 50 and 100; find 10 or 100 more or less than a given number
- recognise the place value of each digit in a three-digit number (
*hundreds, tens, ones*) - compare and order numbers up to 1000
- identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations
- read and write numbers up to 1000 in numerals and in words
- solve number problems and practical problems involving these ideas.

__Addition and Subtraction__

Pupils will be taught to:

- add and subtract numbers mentally, including:
- a three-digit number and ones
- a three-digit number and tens
- a three-digit number and hundreds

- add and subtract numbers with up to three digits, using formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction
- estimate the answer to a calculation and use inverse operations to check answers
- solve problems, including missing number problems, using number facts, place value, and more complex addition and subtraction.

__Multiplication and Division __

Pupils will be taught to:

- recall and use multiplication and division facts for the 3, 4 and 8 multiplication tables
- write and calculate mathematical statements for multiplication and division using the multiplication tables that they know, including for two-digit numbers times one-digit numbers, using mental and progressing to formal written methods
- solve problems, including missing number problems, involving multiplication and division
- solve scaling problems.

__Fractions__

Pupils will be taught to:

- count up and down in tenths; recognise that tenths arise from dividing an object into 10 equal parts and in dividing one-digit numbers or quantities by 10
- recognise, find and write fractions of a discrete set of objects: unit fractions and non-unit fractions with small denominators
- recognise and use fractions as numbers: unit fractions and non-unit fractions with small denominators
- recognise and show, using diagrams, equivalent fractions with small denominators
- add and subtract fractions with the same denominator within one whole (for example:,
^{5}/_{7}+^{1}/_{7 }=^{6}/_{7}) - compare and order unit fractions, and fractions with the same denominators
- solve problems that involve all of the above.

__Measurement__

Pupils will be taught to:

- measure, compare, add and subtract: lengths (m/cm/mm); mass (kg/g); volume/capacity (l/ml)
- measure the perimeter of simple 2-D shapes
- add and subtract amounts of money to give change, using both £ and p in practical contexts
- tell and write the time from an analogue clock, including using Roman numerals from I to XII, and 12-hour and 24-hour clocks
- estimate and read time with increasing accuracy to the nearest minute; record and compare time in terms of seconds, minutes and hours; use vocabulary such as
*o’clock, a.m./p.m., morning, afternoon,**noon*and*midnight* - know the number of seconds in a minute and the number of days in each month, year and leap year
- compare durations of events (for example to calculate the time taken by particular events or tasks).

__Geometry - Shape__

Pupils will be taught to:

- draw 2-D shapes and make 3-D shapes using modelling materials; recognise 3-D shapes in different orientations and describe them
- recognise angles as a property of shape or a description of a turn
- identify right angles, recognise that two right angles make a half-turn, three make three quarters of a turn and four a complete turn; identify whether angles are greater than or less than a right angle
- identify horizontal and vertical lines and pairs of perpendicular and parallel lines.

__Statistics__

Pupils will be taught to:

- interpret and present data using bar charts, pictograms and tables
- solve one-step and two-step questions (for example,
*‘How many more?’*and*‘How many fewer?’*) using information presented in scaled bar charts and pictograms and tables.

**Year 4 Programme of Study: Statutory Requirements**

__Number and Place Value__

Pupils will be taught to:

- count in multiples of 6, 7, 9, 25 and 1000
- find 1000 more or less than a given number
- count backwards through zero to include negative numbers
- recognise the place value of each digit in a four-digit number (
*thousands, hundreds, tens, and ones*) - order and compare numbers beyond 1000
- identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations
- round any number to the nearest 10, 100 or 1000
- solve number and practical problems that involve all of the above and with increasingly large positive numbers
- read Roman numerals to 100 (I to C) and know that over time, the numeral system changed to include the concept of zero and place value.

__Addition and Subtraction__

Pupils will be taught to:

- add and subtract numbers with up to 4 digits using the formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction where appropriate
- estimate and use inverse operations to check answers to a calculation
- solve addition and subtraction two-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why.

__Multiplication and Division __

Pupils will be taught to:

- recall multiplication and division facts for multiplication tables up to 12 × 12
- use place value, known and derived facts to multiply and divide mentally, including: multiplying by 0 and 1; dividing by 1; multiplying together three numbers
- recognise and use factor pairs and commutativity in mental calculations
- multiply two-digit and three-digit numbers by a one-digit number using formal written layout
- solve problems involving multiplying and adding, including multiplying a two digit number by a one digit number
- solve harder scaling problems.

__Fractions and Decimals__

Pupils will be taught to:

- recognise and show, using diagrams, families of common equivalent fractions
- count up and down in hundredths; recognise that hundredths arise when dividing an object by one hundred and dividing tenths by ten
- solve problems involving increasingly harder fractions to calculate quantities, and fractions to divide quantities, including non-unit fractions where the answer is a whole number
- add and subtract fractions with the same denominator
- recognise and write decimal equivalents of any number of tenths or hundredths
- recognise and write decimal equivalents to ¼, ½, ¾
- find the effect of dividing a one- or two-digit number by 10 and 100, identifying the value of the digits in the answer as ones, tenths and hundredths
- round decimals with one decimal place to the nearest whole number
- compare numbers with the same number of decimal places up to two decimal places
- solve simple measure and money problems involving fractions and decimals to two decimal places.

__Measurement__

Pupils will be taught to:

- convert between different units of measure (for example:
*kilometre to metre*;*hour to minute*) - measure and calculate the perimeter of a rectilinear figure (including squares) in centimetres and metres
- find the area of rectilinear shapes by counting squares
- estimate, compare and calculate different measures, including money in pounds and pence

__Geometry - Shape__

Pupils will be taught to:

- compare and classify geometric shapes, including quadrilaterals and triangles
**,**based on their properties and sizes - identify acute and obtuse angles and compare and order angles up to two right angles by size
- identify lines of symmetry in 2-D shapes presented in different orientations
- complete a simple symmetric figure with respect to a specific line of symmetry.

__Geometry – Position and Direction__

Pupils will be taught to:

- describe positions on a 2-D grid as coordinates in the first quadrant
- describe movements between positions as translations of a given unit to the left/right and up/down
- plot specified points and draw sides to complete a given polygon.

__Statistics__

Pupils will be taught to:

- interpret and present discrete and continuous data using appropriate graphical methods, including bar charts and time graphs.
- solve comparison, sum and difference problems using information presented in bar charts, pictograms, tables and other graphs.